A broken leg is a significant injury resulting from a forceful impact that fractures or cracks the leg bones. Join us to explore treatments, exercises, and supplements that can expedite the healing process for leg bones.
The treatment for a broken leg varies based on the location and severity of the injury. Severe leg fractures often require surgical intervention to implant devices that maintain proper bone alignment during the healing process. Timely diagnosis and treatment are critical for ensuring a full recovery.
What Constitutes a Broken Leg?
A broken leg refers to a fracture or crack in one of the leg’s bones, and it may also be referred to as a leg fracture depending on which specific bone is affected. The leg comprises four primary long bones: the femur, patella, tibia, and fibula. In the event of an accident, any of these bones can fracture, splitting into two or more pieces.
- Femur: The longest and most robust bone in the thigh. It articulates with the pelvis to form the hip joint, allowing various movements. A “broken hip” typically refers to a fracture in the upper part of the femur. The lower end of the femur connects with the tibia to create the knee joint, enabling forward, backward, and slight rotational movements.
- Patella: Also known as the kneecap, it moves back and forth within the knee joint. The patella connects the thigh muscle to the tibia and contributes to knee protection.
- Tibia: This is the shin bone, supporting the body’s weight.
- Fibula: Located alongside the tibia, the fibula is positioned on the outer aspect of the leg and is smaller in comparison.
The ankle is formed by the lower ends of the tibia and fibula, in conjunction with metatarsal bones, ligaments, and tendons. Severe twisting injuries to the ankle can result in fractures of the tibia or fibula near or within the ankle joint. These three leg bones are the longest in the human body, with the femur being the longest and strongest of them all.
Causes of broken legs
Various factors can lead to a broken leg, including:
- Falls: A simple fall can result in fractures of one or both shin bones. However, breaking the femur usually requires more severe trauma.
- Motor vehicle accidents: In motor vehicle accidents, all three leg bones may sustain fractures. Knee injuries can occur when a person’s knee becomes trapped in the car’s dashboard during a collision.
- Sports-related injuries: Contact sports can lead to leg fractures, especially when direct impact occurs, such as from a hockey stick or a collision with an opponent’s body.
- Weakened bones: Stress fractures are tiny cracks that develop in weight-bearing bones, including the shinbone. They often arise due to repetitive force or overuse, like in long-distance running. Additionally, stress fractures can occur with regular use of bones that have been weakened by conditions such as osteoporosis.
Varieties of leg fractures and their symptoms can vary in severity, influenced by the fracture’s location, its cause, and any damage to adjacent tissue.
Typical leg fracture types include:
Types of leg fractures and their symptoms vary based on the fracture’s location, cause, and any associated tissue damage:
- Stress fractures: These result from overuse, common in athletes.
- Transverse fracture: A break across the bone with limited damage to surrounding tissues.
- Displaced fracture: Occurs when two parts of the broken bone have moved apart (displacement).
- Comminuted fracture: The bone shatters into three or more pieces.
- Open fracture: A complex fracture where the bone pierces the skin or external trauma exposes the fractured bone.
Symptoms of a broken leg differ depending on the bone involved:
- Femur fractures, the body’s strongest bone, typically result from significant force and are challenging. Symptoms include severe pain that may worsen with movement, swelling, bruises, visible deformity, or shortening of the affected leg, and an inability to walk.
- Shinbone (tibia) and fibula fractures, particularly those below the knee, can be more complex. Signs and symptoms encompass severe pain, which may intensify with movement, swelling, bruising, evident deformity, leg shortening, and the inability to walk.
In children, a broken leg may cause them to stop walking, even if they cannot express why. Unexplained crying may also indicate a toddler with a broken bone.
Diagnosing and Treating Fractures
Your doctor will conduct a thorough examination of your leg to detect any signs of a fracture. If they suspect a broken bone, an X-ray will be ordered. Additionally, your doctor will check for signs of arterial or nerve damage. This assessment includes checking for pulses and assessing strength and sensation around the injury site.
If your doctor suspects an underlying medical condition has weakened your bones, potentially leading to the fracture, they may order additional laboratory tests. Diagnosing weakening fractures can be challenging and may necessitate specialized tests in addition to X-rays.
Here’s how to administer initial first aid for a broken leg before seeking professional help:
- Keep the leg as still as possible to prevent exacerbating the injury.
- Apply an ice pack wrapped in a cloth or towel to reduce swelling.
- If feasible, elevate the leg with pillows or cushions to further reduce swelling.
Typically, surgery is required for individuals with a broken leg. Therefore, refrain from allowing the injured person to eat or drink until they’ve been evaluated by a doctor. Consult your physician regarding dietary restrictions before surgery.
If the bones are misaligned or displaced, they will need to be realigned. Pain medication will be administered before the procedure. Many types of fractures can be temporarily managed with a splint or plaster brace in the emergency room, followed by a referral to an orthopedist for further care.
Fractures involving the femur or shinbone usually necessitate immediate treatment by an orthopedic specialist.
- Splint or Realignment: Initially, your doctor will immobilize your leg with a splint. The splint may be kept on for a day to reduce swelling.
- Cast: Your doctor may employ a splint or cast to stabilize the bones. You might also require crutches or a cane to assist with walking. Typically, crutches or a cane will be needed for about 6-8 weeks.
- Medication: Your doctor may recommend over-the-counter pain relievers like acetaminophen or ibuprofen to alleviate pain and swelling. However, for severe pain, they may prescribe stronger pain medication.
- Physical Therapy: Following the removal of your bandage or brace and once your leg has healed, physical therapy will likely be necessary. This helps restore normal function and strength to your leg muscles, as they may have weakened during the recovery period. Full healing of your leg may take several months or longer.
- Surgery: While a cast or splint suffices for most fractures, surgery may be necessary depending on the extent of the fracture. Surgical procedures often involve the use of pins, screws, metal plates, or wires to secure the broken bone ends. In some cases, particularly with fractures in the midsection of the femur or shinbone (tibia), a metal rod may be inserted through the bone during surgery.
Healing Duration for a Broken Leg
Your doctor will provide guidance on your level of mobility. Typically, a mild fracture takes around 6 to 8 weeks to fully heal. During this period, you may require crutches or a wheelchair to avoid putting weight on the injured leg until the bones have sufficiently mended.
You will receive instructions on the proper use of any mobility aids provided to you. More severe fractures may take between 3 to 6 months to complete the healing process, with some cases requiring even more time.
The hospital may recommend regular physical therapy sessions to help you maintain or regain muscle strength, range of motion, and flexibility. These sessions will involve specific exercises to be performed before and after the removal of the splint or cast.
It’s essential not to rush your recovery by returning to your normal activities prematurely, as the fractured bone may not have fully healed even if the pain subsides. It’s advisable to heed your doctor’s advice, which will likely include a gradual increase in weight-bearing activities over time.
Dietary Recommendations for Broken Legs
Start by considering your diet and the essential nutrients necessary for healing broken bones. You require increased mineral intake, particularly calcium and magnesium.
Calcium, a vital structural component of the skeleton, plays a crucial role in bone health and the healing process. A deficiency in calcium can contribute to bone fractures, making it essential to incorporate calcium-rich foods into your diet. Excellent sources of calcium include green leafy vegetables and fermented dairy products. Therefore, it’s important to consume more green vegetables such as broccoli. Foods rich in calcium, a mineral crucial for building strong bones, include kale, spinach, yogurt, and sardines.
Vitamin D-Rich Foods
Currently, one of the primary natural supplements recommended for fracture treatment is vitamin D. While ongoing research is examining the direct impact of vitamin D supplementation on bone healing after a fracture, there is evidence suggesting that vitamin D deficiency often plays a role in bone fractures. Therefore, vitamin D appears to indirectly contribute to the bone healing process.
If you’ve suffered a fracture, early exposure to sunlight is ideal, as direct absorption of vitamin D from sunlight is crucial for bone growth and offers additional benefits like detoxification. Alternatively, you can consider taking a 5,000 IU vitamin D supplement twice a day for three months to potentially accelerate the healing of broken bones.
Other supplements that can facilitate bone healing include calcium and magnesium supplements, preferably in the form of magnesium chelate. Additionally, fish oil supplements and green superfoods can be beneficial. Fish oil is advantageous for overall health and bone healing due to its omega-3 fatty acids, which reduce inflammation and expedite the healing process.
Furthermore, certain green superfoods, containing beneficial components like spirulina and chlorella, along with other alkaline fruits and vegetables, are highly advantageous for healing broken bones.
Preventing Leg Fractures
While leg fractures are not always preventable, adhering to these fundamental tips can help reduce the risk:
- Promote Bone Health: Incorporate calcium-rich foods like milk, yogurt, and cheese into your diet to strengthen bones. Calcium or vitamin D supplements can also enhance bone strength.
- Choose Appropriate Footwear: Select suitable shoes for specific sports or activities and replace them when the spikes or heels are worn down or if the shoes become uneven.
- Regular Exercise: Engage in a variety of physical activities to prevent stress fractures. Rotate between jogging, swimming, and cycling, for example. If you run on an indoor track with an incline, vary your running direction to distribute stress evenly across your bones.
To prevent injuries, it’s essential to learn the sport properly before participating or seek guidance from a coach to ensure proper technique. If you’re looking for a professional trainer, don’t hesitate to download goodheathplan.com. The app can help you find the ideal trainer to suit your needs. Additionally, we offer assistance in checking into over 100 gyms, clubs, and thousands of classes, as well as participating in recreational activities such as archery, shooting, kayaking, and SUP paddleboarding. Experience the benefits that goodheathplan.com has to offer today.
Johnny Jacks was born in 1985 in Texas, USA. He is the founder of Good Health Plan and is passionate about helping people improve their health and physical well-being. With over a decade of experience working in the healthcare industry, he currently works at Goodheathplan.com – a blog that shares knowledge on beauty and health.